National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Living With A Star

Community Input for LWS Science

2020 Community Input for FSTs Commenting is: closed

Submission DateTopic TitleLWS-TRT SSAsCommentsView
July 4, 2020Ion-neutral coupling in heliophysicsSSA-I, SSA-II, SSA-IV, SSA-VI, SSA-VII
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July 4, 2020Understand the underlying physical processes of solar energetic particles from their origins to the entire inner heliosphere. SSA-I, SSA-II, SSA-III
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July 4, 2020Solar eclipse and ionosphere-thermosphere couplingSSA-II, SSA-V, SSA-VIIComments 1
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175July 4, 2020This topic is fundamental to understanding geospace responses to transient solar radiation changes. With the availability of new space-based observations, such as GOLD, ICON and COSMIC II, and advances in global geospace modeling, space research community has new capability to further explore the dynamic, electrodynamic and chemical processes that govern the behavior of the whole geospace during transient solar radiation events, including solar eclipses, that has not been fully understood so far.
July 3, 2020Impact of Planetary Waves on Longitudinal Variations in the Ionosphere-ThermosphereSSA-V, SSA-VII
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July 3, 2020Solar flux and ionosphere-thermosphere systemSSA-I, SSA-II, SSA-V, SSA-VII, SSA-IX
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July 3, 2020Radial Evolution of the Solar Wind from the Sun to the Outer Boundaries of the HeliosphereSSA-I, SSA-II, SSA-III, SSA-VIII
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July 3, 2020Characterizing the Heliosphere's In Situ Plasma and Energetic Particle Environments' Responses to the Solar CycleSSA-I, SSA-III
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July 3, 2020Solar Flare Energetic Particles and their Effects on Space Weather SSA-I, SSA-II, SSA-III, SSA-VIII, SSA-IX, SSA-XComments 1
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173July 4, 2020Solar Flare Energetic Particles and their Effects on Space Weather - The tittle here is suggests that the implications of solar flare energetic particles on space weather with be included, and yet the way this is written, the focus is entirely on solar phenomena. It is not clear that including an analysis of solar flare effects on the ionosphere/therrmosphere will enhance or even fit in this large solar flare study - but it might. We include here a write-up for consideration for combining with this topic.Solar flares have a profound effect on the I-T system. Observations from SDO EVE instrument can be used to gauge the solar inputs and ionospheric effects during a flare. Studies should focus on which wavelengths are most effective at causing I-T variations. New information can be obtained by examining in more detail exactly which wavelengths produce which effects - e.g. enhanced plasma drift, TEC changes. This enables TEC measurements as an effective monitor of solar flare I-T effects, if the correlation can be firmly established between EUV flux variations and ionospheric response. Since the launch of ICON, solar flare events have occurred (even if weak) which provide opportunities for comparative studies using SDO EVE, ICON, and ground based instruments such as IS radars, TEC observations, and ionosondes. Prior research tends to focus on extremely large flare events (e.g, above the X10 class), which occur statistically uncommon throughout the entire solar cycle domain. However, M-class solar flares occur more than once per month on average, and can become more frequent during high solar activity years. Furthermore, B-class flares occur much more often. These flares’ frequent occurrence have impacts that are not yet well characterized or studied in a larger scale sense. This topic imposes some new and very important scientific questions for the community to pursue to understand the whole I-T-M system. In particular, to what degree can solar flares contribute to the ionosphere and thermosphere short-term variability? Do solar flare energy injections impact ionosphere and thermosphere long-term evolution? We suggest the topic related to influences of moderate-to-high intensity solar flares on the IT system.
July 3, 2020Extreme activity and exoplanet habitabilitySSA-I, SSA-IV, SSA-X
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July 3, 2020Tracking and Evolution of Heliospheric Structures SSA-I
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July 3, 2020Knowledge gap to be filled: The Source of the Discrepancies Between Heliospheric Model Simulations and Observations at 1 AUSSA-I, SSA-II, SSA-III
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July 3, 2020The Magnetic Origin of Space Weather Around Sun-like StarsSSA-II, SSA-X
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July 2, 2020Connecting turbulence, heating, and energetic particles: phenomenology and underlying physics SSA-I, SSA-II, SSA-III, SSA-VIII
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July 1, 2020Closing the Gap between Coronal and Heliospheric Evolution of Coronal Mass EjectionsSSA-II
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July 1, 2020Understanding the Time-Dependent Ambient Solar WindSSA-I
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June 26, 2020Synergistic view of the global magnetosphereSSA-IV, SSA-V, SSA-VIIIComments 5
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168July 3, 2020The goal of this proposal is very ambitious, and any systematic progress made towards it would be important. Combining remote sensing measurements, in situ measurements and first principle physics is challenging for all but the most limited analysis. However, this is a problem that has been solved for other communities and other disciplines - and doing so for the magnetosphere would represent a very significant advance. From my (possibly naive) perspective this is an excellent time for this effort - the models are mature and the measurements are likely extensive enough for a useful solution.
167July 3, 2020This is a very timely FST. The current focus on Space Weather and push toward a better understanding and forecasting of the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere will require a better and quantified understanding of the global dynamics of the system. This FST will comprehensively address this by combining global modelling and multi-point and imaging datasets from a variety of instruments during geomagnetic storms and substorms, two of the most important Space Weather phenomena.
165July 2, 2020I strongly support this FST. First, this FST will help to promote data sets from imagers (EUV, auroral, ENAs, AMPERE) and global magnetometer network as well as usage of these data in the community. Analysis of these data sets together with corresponding modeling proxies from the global codes is a key element to resolve many controversial problems of the magnetospheric physics. Second, this FST will develop tools and methodologies that could be useful in preparation for the future missions, for example future ENA imagers. In my opinion, a mission devoted to measure ENA emissions from the tail and from bursty tail flows in particular could get answered many questions about BBFs and substorms that community is trying to answer for decades. Third, the FST will promote the development of the modern empirical models based on machine learning algorithms, as well as cross-verification of these models with the output from the global codes.
137June 27, 2020Magnetospheric physics has traditionally enjoyed an abundance of in situ observations made by isolated individual observatories. More recent missions employ 1, 2, 4, or even 5 isolated observatories to help understand kinetic microphysical processes such as reconnection and particle acceleration. However, the strength and therefore overall significance of various proposed reconnection and particle acceleration variants is determined by their global consequences, which can be inferred from the location and motion of boundaries such as the bow shock, magnetopause, plasmapause, and auroral ovals, the magnitude of ionospheric convection, or the intensity of radiation belt electrons and ring current ions. Global observations in conjunction with global simulations can supply us with the information needed to determine the dominant modes of interaction (e.g. reconnection on the dayside magnetopause, in the magnetotail, and particle acceleration in the plasma sheet, ring current and radiation belts), provided we know how to extract this information. By developing and testing new techniques to extract information from global imagers and distributed arrays of instruments we will advance our understanding of these interactions and identify requirements for the next generation of observatories.
135June 26, 2020Global magnetosphere studies are critical for two aspects: 1. They allow us to synthesize the measurements from widely separated spacecraft to improve our understanding of dynamics across the many regions of Geospace. 2. They will prepare us to deploy a successful constellation-based mission by enabling us to focus on the measurements needed to answer critical system questions that the current global imaging and modeling cannot. The team-based effort of LWS FSTs would enable the global imaging and modeling communities to work together to address these needs.
June 20, 2020Auroral Region Drivers of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere SystemSSA-IV, SSA-V, SSA-VI, SSA-VIIComments 8
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176July 5, 2020This is an important topic that is assumed in global modeling to be something that is known, but has never been properly reviewed or studied. A data-driven physics approach would be supremely helpful in pushing forward predictive capabilities in the high-latitude regions with improved feedback to the magnetosphere resulting in positive improvements in lower latitude magnetometer predictions. In all, space weather forecasting would gain substantially from a thorough study of a topic such as this.
170July 3, 2020This topic is critical for both magnetosphere and ITM communities, and it is an area for which the synergy between observational and modeling approaches is highly expected. Although numerous magnetospheric processes may be relevant, I would suggest to focus on energy transport from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere, which takes place in different forms (Poynting flux and precipitation) at different spatial and temporal scales (e.g., auroral arcs, meso-scale auroral forms, global R1/R2 currents). It still remains to be understood how the “spectrum” of energy transport looks like, how it depends on the states of the M-I system (storms, substorms, etc.), and how it impacts the ITM system. As listed in the original input, there is an extensive set of satellite and ground data available for tackling this challenging issue, and numerous models are also available for critically comparing with such observations. This would be a highly compelling FST.
166July 3, 2020This topic addresses fundamental research and deliverables needed to advance our understanding of the coupled M-I-T system. For example, the M-I-T research community often validates different models using different datasets that are not calibrated against each other and have unique measurement errors. This makes data-model comparison and evaluation of model performance ambiguous. The FST would address this challenge by bringing together research groups with a range of modeling/observational expertise and using open-source software for uncertainty quantification and propagation.
163July 2, 2020This is an important and outstanding topic which is far from resolved.
162July 2, 2020This topic is highly important to understanding the global magnetospheric system, it's coupling, and its mass and energy budget. The auroral drivers embody one of the primary ways in which magnetic reconnection couples to the Earth's ionosphere and atmosphere. Therefore, they embody the indirect means by which the solar wind connects to near-Earth geospace. As such, they also imprint and reveal physical events at the magnetopause and magnetotail as well as the ionosphere. Researchers can therefore glean a great deal of information from observing and investigating them. It therefore behooves us to further exploit existing and future missions, such as THEMIS, MMS, TRACERS, and RBSP, to investigate auroral drivers as a projection of the physics occurring in the magnetosphere and the ionosphere.
155July 1, 2020This FST proposes to resolve a number of issues facing the I-T community, which would enable a number of key science goals to be addressed and incorporate a range of existing measurements and models, with a particular focus on lasting inter-research group collaboration
152July 1, 2020This FST points out an important problem with a wide range of potential applications. The solution may benefit from different aspects of computational sciences, such as uncertainty quantification and propagation, data analytics, and AI/ML. Owing to the diverse applications and topics to be covered, it would be a great opportunity to start collaborations between various disciplines and institutes.
146June 30, 2020I'm in favor of this science topic because the auroral region driver of IT is a special element on the chain of space weather, which connects the outer space and the atmosphere. The auroral region driver is a hub for the energy/particle input and other influences from the solar wind and magnetosphere before they are input to the atmosphere. In addition to the calling for ground-truth by the authors here, I'd like to emphasize the importance of meso- to small-scale drivers in the auroral region as plenty of high resolution measurements and a lot of improvements in model capacity become available. Besides the measurements mentioned which are mostly from the IT side, I'd like to recommend including some of the magnetospheric mission such as RBSP, which can provide insights into the origin of the drivers. The connections to the magnetospheric source and potential feedback to the magnetospheric dynamics should be mentioned as well since the community is toward a trend of looking at the whole geospace as a coupled system.
June 8, 2020Influence of multi-scale high-latitude forcing on mid- and low-latitude perturbationsSSA-IV, SSA-V, SSA-VIIComments 6
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159July 1, 2020This is a timely and compelling science topic for LWS. This supports the science goals of GDC, examines how energy is distributed throughout the Ionosphere-Thermosphere system, and leverages new observations from NASA and the wider geospace community. There is an additional opportunity to include TIDs driven by forcing from below as well, such as Tropospheric storms,
145June 30, 2020Thermospheric wind should be included in the study. We do not know much the effect of neutral wind on the TAD. It is also important to examine TAD from the two hemispheres. Seasonal and inter-hemispheric differences can also impact the TAD propagation.
129June 9, 2020This research topic is an important new frontier for M-I-T coupling science. The dedicated NASA LWS FTS efforts are highly needed. The proposal and previous comments have said well. I would like to emphasize that there is a lack of the global picture of storm-time TIDs/TADs even though their equatorward propagation is generally known at mid- and low latitudes. Numerous ground-based and in situ measurements, along with high res numerical models, are readily available to characterize these storm-time features and address the fundamental physical processes.
128June 9, 2020Generation mechanisms of TADs/TIDs and their propagation are forefront research topics in the IT community because they are important sources of the perturbations in the IT system and external energy input into the polar atmosphere is believed to be transferred to lower latitudes by TADs/TIDs. However, we do not yet have a clear understanding of the generation and propagation conditions of TADs/TIDs. Various ground-based and satellite observations enable us to identify the global morphology and propagation of TIDs, but model simulations are essential to identify the generation and propagation of TADs interacting with the ionosphere. Combination of ionospheric observations and numerical simulations will address many questions regarding TADs/TIDs. The proposed topic also has a close relevance to the NASA's future GDC mission.
127June 8, 2020It is an excellent time to move forward on this topic since much has recently been learned about the structure and critical importance of meso- and small-scale auroral structures. In addition to the important topics mentioned in the goals and descriptions, the effect of flow channels that extend to mid-latitudes during major disturbances should be considered.
126June 8, 2020Coupling processes across scales are important to understand energy redistribution in the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere system and formation of localized density structures that disturb GNSS signals and satellite operations. Efforts for understanding their properties and generation mechanism are limited, but an organic use of spacecraft, ground-based data and high resolution numerical simulations could dramatically advance community's understanding of coupling processes and improvement of space weather issues. The topic is highly relevant to GOLD and ICON, and increases preparation for GDC.
June 5, 2020Space Weather at the Moon: Alfvenic Plasma Flows, Plasmoids and Magnetospheric - Solar Energetic ParticlesSSA-II, SSA-III, SSA-VIII
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June 3, 2020Applications of machine learning for physics discovery in the heliosphereSSA-I, SSA-II, SSA-III, SSA-IV, SSA-V, SSA-VI, SSA-VII, SSA-VIII, SSA-XComments 3
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153July 1, 2020This is a timely topic: the availability of large imaging datasets from SDO and other ground- and space-based telescopes as well as auxilary observaitons lend themselves directly to standard machine-learning approaches to discover correlations and identify "fundamental" phenomenon by ab initio (non-supervised) classification.
148June 30, 2020This is a very timely and compelling topic, and uniquely suited to LWS. The applied techniques can be applied across multiple disciplines, and the nature of the FST allows for an advancement in our community that is greater than the sum of its parts by fostering discussions of the applications of these techniques across the subdisciplines of Heliophysics that might otherwise be separated through lack of connecting data or models.
141June 28, 2020I strongly support this FST. As instrumentations get better and return higher and higher data rates, it becomes a challenge to analyze all these petabytes and exabytes of data. The traditional methods may not be able to analyze such a huge dataset and may only discover linear relationships. On the other hand, these AI/ML/information theoretical tools can analyze big data and discover nonlinearities. They can help increase the return of the NASA science missions.
June 3, 2020The Effects of Solar Cycle Variations on Atmospheric Evolution and Escape of Terrestrial and Habitable Planets SSA-IV, SSA-V, SSA-VI, SSA-VII, SSA-IX, SSA-XComments 2
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122June 3, 2020Comparative planetology provides an effective approach for understanding atmospheric escape and evolution for the terrestrial planets. Data spanning the solar cycle can in particular give insight into atmospheric escape at Venus, Earth, and Mars.
121June 3, 2020This is an important topic. Using comparative planetary planetary studies to understand atmospheric evolution and escape at the terrestrial planets is a very promising and effect approach. Solar cycle effects can particularly give insight into escape phenomena.
May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Atmospheric Evolution and Loss to Space in the Presence of a StarSSA-I, SSA-II, SSA-IX, SSA-XComments 10
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154July 1, 2020The study of atmospheric escape is becoming fundamental to exoplanet research and but we rely heavily on solar observations and analysis to understand this process. This topic is extremely timely and should also be connected with high-energy radiation from the sun (or star) which drives heating of the upper atmosphere and acts concurrently with particle fluxes (solar/stellar wind) and magnetic fields.
131June 17, 2020I strongly support this FST and am very disappointed that it wasn't included last year. There is a large community interested in this topic within heliophysics as well as the planetary and exoplanet communities.
130June 15, 2020I strongly support this FST. It is a very important topic falling within the scope of the LWS program. Understanding the atmospheric loss and evolution of a planet (including Earth) through its interactions with the host star is a timely issue that needs to be addressed by the well developed and validated numerical tools from the heliophysics community. In addition, this is a highly interdisciplinary topic involving fields ranging from solar physics, space weather, magnetospheric physics to ionosphere-thermosphere physics; these fields constitute the central components of the LWS program.
125June 5, 2020Please retain this FST: it focuses on an area of critical interest for the planetary and exoplanetary community. 2/3 solar system terrestrial planets with substantial atmospheres, Venus and Mars, have had their atmospheric and volatile composition strongly modified by escape to space. Understanding this process is therefore essential if we wish to understand how planets evolve in general. This understanding is still in its infancy. Without a sustained commitment of LWS to focused on escape, this fundamental process will remain under-explored, greatly limiting our knowledge of star-planet interactions.
124June 5, 2020I strongly support continuation of this Focused Science Topic (FST). The drivers of atmospheric loss and evolution are far from being fully understood, but are of central importance to understanding Earth, the planet-star interaction, and exoplanet studies. A key component of this FST is atmosphere–ionosphere–magnetosphere coupling, an area that addresses areas of Decadal Science Challenges “Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interactions” (SWMI) and “Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interactions” (AIMI).
123June 3, 2020Loss to space and its effect on atmospheric evolution is an important one. Looking at processes at several planets can help elucidate the processes controlling atmospheric escape. In particular, considering data from Earth and other planets, including "non-magnetized" planets such as Venus and Mars, can help determine the role of an intrinsic magnetic field on atmospheric loss. Such a comparative approach also lends itself to understanding exoplanets and other star systems.
120June 3, 2020This topic addresses the 'Living With A Star' science in its broadest sense, elevating its intellectual relevance to the highest levels of SMD goals. By studying the effects of solar radiation and solar wind interactions on the planets of our solar system, with Earth as one special example, we realize how our very existence hinges on serendipity and a host of probabliistic happenings with positive outcomes (at least for the most part....) when it comes to our stellar host. The planets give us an up close look at just a minute collection of other possibilities-essential to know in the era of expanding exoplanet research. This FST offers the opportunity to look closely at the local collection of realizations of star-planet relationships toward understanding how they work today. Even then, the time coordinate comes into play in considering that these relationships today do not generally represent how they may have been throughout the planets' lifetimes. The FST provides an opportunity for Heliophysics to make a much more substantial contribution to other SMD initiatives including NexSS where all the disciplines come together to tackle the thorny problems of reconstructing the Sun and solar system history and projecting the knowledge to distant and different counterparts. In addition to focusing on the details of planetary -space environment interactions, it also affords the opportunity to revive and grow the key area of solar history reconstruction-especially in light of the now more vigorous Sun-As-A-Star reseach that has followed from the Kepler mission. Did the planets experience superflares? How would we know? What are the consequences? What happens in a superflare event as far as space environment perturbations? What more can we learn about the history of not only solar activity but also the solar wind? These are ultimate 'Living With A Star' questions -deserving of prominent featuring within the LWS portfolio.
119June 2, 2020Among exoplanet scientists, M-dwarfs have become a focus in the search for habitable worlds due to the fact that Earth-sized planets are more easily observed around these stars. Given their stellar activity, whether planets orbiting these stars are able to host life-sustaining atmospheres is a big question mark. This FST would provide essential, timely encouragement for investigators to study loss processes in tandem on Earth, on other solar system planets, and on exoplanets.
118June 2, 2020I strongly support this FST! I believe this is a key step in determining just how common or rare planets like Earth and life like Earth's could be in the universe. I would consider adding a goal of developing tools to measure the wind and CMEs of stars as critical to the overall goal of this FST.
116May 29, 2020I strongly support continuing this Focused Science Topic. Speaking only from the Mars & Venus perspective, it's clear there is much still to be understood in the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-exosphere systems of unmagnetized planets, with or without strong crustal magnetic fields. The above implementation strategy, involving data analysis, simulations, and theory/model development, is appropriate without being too prescriptive. A couple of points based on the current text: - under "Measures of Success", planetary size is indeed important, but in two separate ways: a) in terms of the size of the planet relative to its magnetosphere, and b) how the size of the planet determines the strength of gravity. It seems like gravity should be mentioned separately, as it is a key distinguishing factor between Mars and Venus: dissociative recombination of O2+ ions happens in both planets' ionosphere; on Venus this results in no direct escape, while on Mars it is by far the dominant source of O escape at the present epoch. - The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (collecting science data since 2018) should be called out as a current source of applicable data, particularly in terms of quantities like high-altitude water vapor that are directly correlated with order-of-magnitude increases in hydrogen escape. - Under future missions (launching in July 2020), the Emirates Mars Mission should be mentioned. It will regularly monitor the thermosphere and oxygen and hydrogen exospheres (and hence escape rates) from February 2021 onwards.
May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Combining Models and Observations to Study CME Plasma Energetics in the Inner CoronaSSA-I, SSA-II, SSA-III, SSA-IVComments 1
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151July 1, 2020This is a very important topic and should be selected, not least because CME-related topics seem to be underrepresented in the FST input list. CMEs are the main driver of geomagnetic storms, so establishing their physics and properties is essential for understanding (and eventually predicting) space weather and its effects on Earth. I would suggest to extend the scope of the FST to CME evolution/energetics in the outer corona and inner heliosphere. This would be especially appropriate in light of the recently launched Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter missions (both of which already observed CMEs). By now many simulation codes can model interplanetary CME evolution, so synergy of theory and observations would be ensured. I would further suggest to not to limit oneself to data-driven models. While those likely constitute the future of CME modeling, they are presently still in a development stage. The scientific questions of this topic can (and should) be addressed with existing and well-established data-constrained, data-inspired, or even idealized numerical models of the solar corona and CMEs.
May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Coupling of SolarWind Plasma and Energy into the Geospace SystemSSA-II, SSA-IV, SSA-V, SSA-VIIIComments 4
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161July 2, 2020To understand the dynamics of the geospace environment, and for the development of predicting capability for hazard space weather effect in the future, the geospace must be treated as a whole system - from the solar wind all the way to the atmosphere. This FST is right in the middle of moving our field forward, by looking at the big picture - geospace as a system. Therefore it is the most important FST to be funded.
149June 30, 2020Solar wind-magnetospheric coupling is the critical link between the solar wind and all of the dynamics studied by the solar wind and all of the magnetosphere - ionosphere-thermosphere communities. Advancing our understanding and predictability of the coupling will advance all of these other areas that are triggered from the energy entry. The benefits of supporting this FST would expand far greater than the area of study.
143June 29, 2020There are many remaining unknowns about the coupling of the solar wind to the Earth’s magnetosphere. This is the science that informs the magnetospheric and space-weather communities about how to optimally use the measurements made by the heliospheric community. The science of solar wind/magnetosphere coupling provides opportunities to introduce system-science techniques and data analytics into space physics. For advancements to be made, innovative methods of monitoring the strength of dayside reconnection and monitoring the strength of the viscous interaction would be helpful.
140June 28, 2020I strongly support this FST, which is one of the few FSTs that takes a global view of the solar wind-magnetosphere interactions. This FST can also benefit from using advanced tools from systems science/machine learning/data analytics/information theory.
May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Solar Photospheric Magnetic FieldsSSA-I, SSA-II, SSA-IV, SSA-VIIIComments 3
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160July 2, 2020This is an important topic and one that is particularly relevant for the applied science goals of the LWS Program. The photospheric magnetic field is probably the most important input to any data-constrained model of the solar corona or heliosphere, so research on improving these data products (and their application) is essential for bolstering our descriptive and predictive capabilities. I strongly support the data-oriented research described in the FST, but the goals and implementation could be broadened to better link to the measures of success. Clearly the surface field influences coronal hole boundaries, the solar wind, and the IMF, but this relation is not one-to-one. Studies linking coronal and heliospheric structure to surface field distributions, addressing in particular how plasma processes or time-dependent evolution lead to global non-potentiality, would synergize well with the data-oriented projects outlined in the FST. There are also bi-directional pathways for fruitful research, where, for example, coronal or solar wind models and observations may be used to improve and inform surface-field maps when data is not available or uncertain (e.g. at the poles). In other words, physics-based and statistical studies connecting surface-field distributions to coronal and heliospheric structure would fit naturally within this FST, and their inclusion would strengthen its overall relevance to the LWS TR&T program.
158July 1, 2020While I fully support this FST I feel it should include an element that encourages ongoing and innovative development of quantitative measurements of chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields using O/IR and radio techniques, a goal being to trace the field from photospheric to corona heights and out into the IPM.
134June 24, 2020I strongly support the science described in this FST. However, I believe it is in the interest of the community to expand upon the context. While photospheric diagnostics are useful for understanding the global and large-scale phenomenon like sunspot emergence or meridional circulation, the photosphere is possibly most important for the details of what is occurring at the smallest scales. Whatever physical processes are being manifested in the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere, they are driven and transported through sub-arcsec features in the photosphere. Medium resolution full-disk magnetograms such as those provided by HMI and GONG are undoubtedly invaluable, but the same esteem should be transferred to the highest resolution observations offered by Hinode, IRIS, Solar Orbiter, and DKIST. Electromagnetic stressing, flux emergence, and flux cancellation are all small-scale processes with Sun-Earth system effects. To make forward progress toward the goal of predictive Sun-Earth modeling, our understanding of how these small-scale processes statistically scale up is essential. A FST dedicated to photospheric magnetic fields should include both the immediate operations-minded goals as described in the FST as is, and as well a goal to use high resolution photospheric observations to build physics-based "subgrid scale models" for simulations that allow us to understand the Sun-Earth system.
May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Understanding SpaceWeather Effects and Developing Mitigation Strategies for Human Deep Space FlightSSA-VIII
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May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Connecting Auroral Phenomena with Magnetospheric PhenomenaSSA-IV, SSA-V, SSA-VI, SSA-VIIComments 3
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142June 28, 2020This is a very important and timely topic. There are many fundamental gaps in our understanding of the connection between magnetospheric dynamics and the aurora. Now that MMS has provided us with such a detailed picture of kinetic scale processes in the magnetotail, it is time to move on to understand how these processes impact the global structure and dynamics of the magnetosphere. Recent advances in the incorporation of kinetic effects into global magnetosphere models puts the simulation of auroral substorms in reach. This focused science topic would facilitate rapid progress in this critical area.
139June 28, 2020This is a very important topic which would also help to better connect ionospheric and magnetospheric communities.
133June 23, 2020I continue to believe this topic is important and represents a need that has not received adequate attention.
May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Extreme Solar Events --- Probabilistic Forecasting and Physical UnderstandingSSA-II, SSA-VIIIComments 3
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157July 1, 2020I'd like to endorse another comment that was posted here regarding radio bursts and their impact on navigation and communication systems. They are fertile ground for both theoretical and observational studies. It also bears mentioning that IP type II and type III radio bursts accompany large eruptive events and SEPs of which both ground based assets (LOFAR, MWA, LWA-OVRO, JVLA) and space based missions (PSP, SO, and SunRISE) will provide new observables and insights. SunRISE, in particular, will image IP type II and type III radio bursts for the first time as they propagate into the heliosphere, tracing the location of IP shocks.
156July 1, 2020This is an important topic that strongly deserves to be considered.  While by definition, extreme events are rare, we have some modern solar events that might have caused extreme space weather if they had been Earth directed.  Probabilistic forecasting studies should not just include the likelihood of a given source region to produce a major event, but allow studies that seek to understand the probability over years, as has been investigated for geomagnetic storms (e.g. Love et al. GRL, 42, 6544, 2016). 
147June 30, 2020I would like to amplify the concerns this topic addresses in the case of extreme solar radio bursts, which is one of the five space weather effects being benchmarked by the Space Weather Operations, Research, and Mitigation (SWORM) Working Group. There is some indication that extreme radio burst events are not simply larger versions of typical radio events, but rather are due to one or more coherent emission mechanisms that are little understood. Without knowing more about such phenomena, it is not possible to predict their theoretical maximum strength. Recent advances in radio instrumentation (LOFAR, MWA, OVRO-LWA, VLA, EOVSA) for the first time offer imaging at the frequency- and time-resolution needed to properly characterize the physical nature of the coherent emission that gives rise to extreme events. This is an extremely timely study area given these new observational capabilities as a new solar cycle ramps up. In the case of radio bursts, this FST would also be directly relevant to SSA III: Acceleration and Transport of Solar Energetic Particles.
May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Understanding Ionospheric Conductivity and its VariabilitySSA-V, SSA-VI, SSA-VIIComments 3
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164July 2, 2020Conductivity is a really challenging parameter to understand since it is not directly observed. Since it must be derived, it is important to consider facts such as the thermospheric mass density and its role in the conductivity values. In addition, various methods have been devised to quantify the conductivity, but those methods should be cross validated. This topic should be supported.
132June 18, 2020This topic also connects to SSA-IV: Variability of the Geomagnetic Environment because magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at high latitudes can modulate conductivity.
114May 27, 2020Conductivity is a complex realization of a number of interconnected phenomena, including particle precipitation, Poynting flux, field-aligned currents, and the pre-condictioned IT state. Recent work (e.g., and has recognized the need to integrate richly diverse data sets to advance the understanding and prediction of ionospheric conductivity. This brief comment is to provide recommendations on the research directions and metrics for this call: Emphases: 1. Embrace a systems-perspective. Thinking and proposals that embrace the intersection of traditionally disparate fields (e.g., IT variability and magnetospheric dynamics) should be prioritized. 2. Focus on the relationships between existing data. We often specify coupling phenomena individually (e.g., particle precipitation separately from field-aligned currents), but these phenomena are inextricably and non-linearly connected and the complex manifestation in ionospheric conductivity is evidence. This program should reward efforts to explicitly and semantically link data that describe these coupling phenomena. 3. Produce research artifacts that facilitate the rest of the community to also take a systems-level approach. Metrics: 1. The number of data sets that are enriched with metadata and semantically linked so that they become more accessible and usable. 2. Discovery of mesoscale conductivity variability that is only revealed when numerous coupling phenomena are integrated (e.g., are there structures that emerge when particle precipitation and field-aligned currents are considered simultaneously that are not present when the two are considered in isolation?) 3. Identification of new measures to assess the capability of conductivity specification models that can be used across the geospace system (e.g., how to compare two global maps that spatially and temporally vary?). Earth Science can provide guidance.
May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Connecting Thermospheric Composition and Space WeatherSSA-V, SSA-VII, SSA-IX
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May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Understanding the Variability of the ITM System Due to Tides, Planetary Waves, Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionospheric DisturbancesSSA-IV, SSA-V, SSA-VI, SSA-VIIComments 4
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177July 6, 2020The topic of energy transport by different scales of waves is very important. Waves couple vertically but also different latitudes and are an important factor in generating space weather. While the community made progress with seasonal variations of tides, and also nonlinear coupling between global scale waves, the complexity is not understood to be able to make progress on predictions. Waves on different scales with their temporal variability and their variable spatial distribution are important to understand since they affect mean circulation, composition, satellite drag, lead to ionospheric instabilities etc.
144June 29, 2020The ability to accurately estimate thermospheric drag on satellites, and to predict satellite position and re-entry requires understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for variability in the thermospheric system. Much of the global-scale longitude variability in the thermosphere is connected with atmospheric tides, and the day-to-day and longer-period variability is connected with tidal modulation by longer-period waves and in-situ solar forcing. This FST will support research that will be of value to the space weather prediction enterprise by elucidating plausible underlying mechanisms responsible for this variability.
136June 26, 2020This is not only a very timely FST but of increasing importance. For example, recent results coupling WACCM-X and SAMI-3 start to produce bubbles in the ionosphere that look like GOLD obs, with atmospheric waves as the most likely cause (see the recent GRL from Huba and Liu).
115May 29, 2020It will be important to not only study the ITM variability in the form of waves and TIDs but also in terms of mean state variability that are driven by tides, PWs, GWs etc. For example, wave-driven mean circulation changes in the lower thermosphere that act as an additional eddy and through molecular diffusion change composition throughout the whole thermosphere. I also think that statistical studies of wave variability important for the ITM should be encouraged, e.g., response as a function of frequently used lower atmosphere source variability such as the Madden-Julian-Oscillation, etc. Progress in understanding of such regularly occurring lower atmospheric phenomena is needed - to catch up with once-in-a-year events like SSW that have been intensively studied over the past few years.
May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Pathways of Cold Plasma through the MagnetosphereSSA-IV, SSA-VComments 6
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174July 4, 2020The role of cold/thermal plasma in the magnetosphere is not even close to being fully understood. While there have been limited observations in the past, the really cold ions (and electrons) with energies close to or below ~1 eV have rarely been measured or investigated with the same thoroughness or depth as other particle populations. Cold plasma forms the bulk of the mass in the magnetosphere, and we already know it plays an important role in many physical processes, but our knowledge is limited. A dedicated effort via this FST would help link theoretical and data-analysis efforts to provide a much better understanding of cold plasma, ionospheric outflow and refilling, and plasma transport and circulation in the magnetosphere.
172July 4, 2020Dynamics of the plasmasphere/plasmasheet interaction is still very poorly understood. The development of waves and undulations on the plasmapause are likely SAPS-generated and can be seen in the auroral ionosphere as Giant Undulations. These are a potentially important, but under-studied internal source of Pc5 ULF pulsations. In addition the nonlinear evolution of waves on the plasmapause may be related to a number of other poorly understood phenomena (e.g. long-lived drainage plumes). Study of structuring caused by interactions of plasmasphere/plasmasheet could be a fruitful component of this call.
171July 3, 2020I strongly support this group and agree with one of the previous comments – the impact of cold plasma populations on various physical process should be given a more prominent role within the proposed FST. As an example, the influence of cold plasma on magnetic reconnection and wave-particle interactions is often quite nuanced but could be quite strong.
169July 3, 2020This topic is still extremely timely and is even more important to pursue. Recently, a new GEM focus group on Cold Plasma through the I-T-M system is pursuing modeling and data-driven studies. Ionospheric content at times DOMINATES (not just contributes to) plasma content in the entire magnetosphere. We still do not have a quantitative handle on exactly how much plasma content is supplied by the plasmasphere plume / cold ionospheric plasma (O+ rich), the polar wind (H+/He+), cusp outflow/upwelling, and recirculation from the flanks and tail. Cold plasma profoundly affects radiation belt acceleration and loss as well through fundamental changes in wave-particle interactions as well as interrupting normal natural processes such as chorus wave particle acceleration. Reconnection rates need quantitative cold / warm cloak plasma input values in order to determine what impacts these have on the width of reconnection boundaries at the dayside magnetopause, on the asymmetric flow there, and other factors. These are all modulated by things like geomagnetic response during storms, Bz clock angle, and such. The topic cuts across all disciplines.
150June 30, 2020Cold plasma is the elephant in the room. It contains the bulk of the mass and momentum in the magnetosphere and has significant control of the system yet it receives little attention. The lack of attention is mostly due to challenges with spacecraft measurements. Major progress could come from a dedicated attack through supporting this FST.
138June 28, 2020I strongly support this FST, since the cold plasma is extremely important for magnetospheric physics but it is in my opinion understudied (in part because of the difficulty with its measurements). My main comment is that this FST should/could be broaden to include a focus on the IMPACT of the cold plasma in magnetospheric physics, in addition to the also-important pathways. The cold plasma affects such a broad variety of phenomena (solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling, substorms, wave-particle interactions, aurora structuring, …) and a lot of it is not well understood. Additionally, it is plausible that there might be impacts that are not yet known and that could be discovered with a stronger focus of the community on this topic.
May 12, 20202018 Rollover FST - Understanding the Impact of Thermospheric Structure and Dynamics on Orbital DragSSA-VII
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